来源:A加未来       时间:2020-09-24 13:26


  四大人口密集区域:East Asia20%;South Asia20%;Southeast Asia最多;WesternEurope
  人口稀少区域:Dry Lands;Wet Lands;Cold lands;High lands
  *Populationdensity:arithmetic,physiological,and agricultural
  Arithmetic density:The number of peopleliving in a given unit area.
  Physiologic density:A ratio of human population to the area of cropland,used in less developed countries dominated by subsistence agriculture.
  *Demographic factors that determine population growth and decline are fertility,mortality,and migration.
  Fertility:TFR(total fertilityrate)the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years(15-49).
  Mortality:分为the infant mortality rate(IMR)and life expectancy.
  A.IMR-the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age,compared with total live births.
  B.Life expectancy-the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels
  *衡量人口增减的指数:Doubling time;Total fertilityrate;Infant mortality rate;Life expectancy
  Crude birth rate(CBR)-The total number oflive births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
  Crude death rate(CDR)-total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
  Natural increase rate(NIR)-一年人口增长率.a country’s growth rate excludes migration
  *Demographic Transition:4个阶段
  Stage 1:Low Growth没有国家处于此阶段
  Stage 2:High Growth
  Stage 3:Moderate Growth
  Stage 4:Low Growth出现ZPG(零增长TFR=2.1)
  *EpidemiologicTransition:Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
  *马尔萨斯理论Malthusian theory1798《An Essay on the Principle ofPopulation》:世界将灭亡由于over population,starvation,and disease.
  *Neo-Malthusians:theamount of farmland is decreasing while the population is increasing
  Push factor:when people are forced out of an area(Ex:Hurricane Katrinadestroyed many peoples’houses,so they were forced to move somewhere else.)
  Pull factor:when people desireto move into a new location(Ex:Better job openingin a new area,a good place to retire.Usually promises a better situation than the present one.)
  A.Economic Push and Pull Factors:
  -Pull:People emigrate to places with better job opportunities.They will also emigrate because of better natural resources.Metal and coal deposits might attract miners.A brand new industry or store could attract technicians,scientists,engineers,or otherworkers.
  -Push:When a industry goes bankrupt,workers will lose their jobs and might be forced to move to adifferent area because of a job opportunity.
  B.Cultural Push and Pull Factors:
  -2个主要push factors are slavery andpolitical instability.Millions of people were captured and shipped to many different countries as prisoners or slaves.(People called refugees are forced to migrate form their countries because of fear of persecution because of their race,nationality,religion,or political opinion.)
  -Pull:people migrate for especially the lure of freedom.(People are attracted to democratic countriesthat encourage individual choice in education,career,and a place ofresidence.)
  C.Environmental Push and Pull Factors:
  -Pull:people are attracted to areas with warm climates,mountainsides,and seasides.
  -Push:certain physical conditions cause people to move to different areas like too much or too littlewater in an area can force people to move.Also an area that is storm prone canforce people to migrate.
  *国际国内移民International&Internal Migration
  ①International Migration(2种)-The permanent movement from onecountry to another.非洲到澳洲
  A.Voluntary migration-implies that migrant has chosen to move for economic improvements.
  B.Forced migration-the migranthas been compelled to move by cultural factors.
  (Economic push and pull factorsusually induce voluntary migration.Whereas cultural factors usually compelforced migration)
  ②Internal Migration(2种)-Permanent movement within aparticular country.-Georgia to California
  A.Interregional migration-movement from one region of a country to another.
  Rust Belt:The northern industrialstates of the United States,including Ohio,Michigan,and Pennsylvania,inwhich heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity.In the 1960s,1970s,and 1980s,these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor wascheaper,leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate(美国北部,重工业衰落失去经济基础)
  Sun Belt:U.S.region,mostlycomprised of southeastern and southwestern states,which has grown most dramatically since World War II
  B.Intraregional migration-movement within on region