来源：A加未来 时间：2021-12-10 10:47
AP考试是由 collegeboard 组织的，对AP课程学习效果检验的标准化的考试，一年举行一次，且仅有一次。今天小编着重讲解AP生物各章重点词汇总结。
Any inherited structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to environmental factors and live to produce offspring is called an adaptation.
The gradual change in a species through adaptations over time is evolution.
Growth results in an increase in the amount of living meterial and the formation of new structures.
One of the most obvious of all the characteristics of life is reproduction, the production of offspring.
A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature.
Anything in an organism’s external or internal environment that causes the organism to react is a stimulus.
Dependent variable 因变量
The condition that any changes in it depend on changes made to the independent variable is called dependent variable.
Independent variable 自变量
The condition in an experiment that is tested is the independent variable.
Ecology is the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment.
An ecosystem is made up of interacting populations in a biological community and the community’s abiotic factors.
A niche is all strategies and adaptations a species uses in its environment.
An organism that uses light energy or energy stored in chamical compounds to make energy-rich compounds is a producer, or autotroph.
An organism that cannot make its own food and feeds on other organisms is called a heterotroph.
Food chain 食物链
A food chain is a simple model that species use to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem. In a food chain, nutrients and energy move from autotrophs to heterotrophs and, eventually, to decomposers.
Limiting factor 限制因素
A limiting factor is any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of an organisms.
The ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors is known as tolerance.
Primary succesion 原生演替
The colonization if barren land by communities of organisms is called primary succesion. 原生演替( primary succession ) 在完全没有植物的基础上，如海洋上隆起的新岛，火山的溶岩流，新形成的湖沼等地方因植物移居发生的演替
Carrying capacity 环境容量
The number of organisms of one species that an environment can support indefinitely is its carrying capacity.
Exponential growth 指数增长
Exponential growth means that as a populetion get larger, it also grows at a faster rate.
Biodiversity refers to the variety of species in a specific area.
Endangered species 濒危物种
A species is considered to be an endangered species when its numbers become so low that extinctions is possible.
Extinction is the disappearance of a species when the last of its members dies.
Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
With the development of better mocroscopes, scientists observed that all cells contain small, specialized structures called organelles, such as mitochondria, chloroplast and ribosme.
The central membrane-bound organelle that manages or controls cellular functions is called the nucleus.
Plasma membrane 细胞质膜
Plasma membrane is the flexible boundary between the cell and its environment, to allow a steady supply of these nutrients to come into the cell no matter what the external conditions are.
Selective permeability 选择通透性
Selective permeability is a process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass through while keeping others out.选择透过性专指细胞膜上膜蛋白的选择透过作用。如选择K+和N+进入细胞膜
A phospholipid has a glyceral backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a pgosphate group.含有一个或多个磷酸基的脂质。是构成细胞膜的主要脂分子
Transport protein 转运蛋白
Transport proteins move needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane.在叶绿体内膜上有很多运输蛋白选择性转运出入叶绿体的分子。叶绿体内膜上所有转运蛋白的运输作用都是靠浓度梯度驱动的,而不是主动运输。这不仅与细胞质膜的运输蛋白不同,也与线粒体内膜的运输系统不同,在线粒体内膜中也有主动运输的转运蛋白